Attention Deficit Hyperactivity-Impulsivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuro-developmental condition that affects how an adult or child manages their focus, concentration levels of energy and drive.
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders checklist, at least six of the following ADHD
symptoms often apply:

  • Inattention
  • Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities
  • Has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities.
  • Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly.
  • Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behaviour or failure to understand instructions).
  • Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities.
  • Avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework).
  • Loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, books, or tools).
  • Easily distracted by extraneous stimuli.
  • Forgetful in daily activities.

At least six of the following signs of hyperactivity-impulsivity often apply:

  • Hyperactivity
  • FFidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat.
  • Leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected.
  • Runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness).
  • Has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly.
  • Appears “on the go” or acts as if “driven by a motor.”
  • Talks excessively.
  • Impulsivity
  • Blurts out the answers before the questions have been completed.
  • Has difficulty awaiting turn.
  • Interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games).

Some hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment were present before age 7.

Some impairment from the symptoms is present in two or more settings (e.g., at school [or work] and at home).

There must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.

The symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a pervasive developmental disorder, schizophrenia, or other psychotic disorder, and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g., mood disorder, anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, or a personality disorder).

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often known as Autism, are neuro-developmental conditions that are caused by some abnormalities in the brain. Children and adults with autism struggle with communication, social interaction and often have a range of intellectual ability.

Some have severe learning difficulties while others may be very capable in academic settings. Asperger’s syndrome is used to describe individuals with higher functioning than others on the autism spectrum. Individuals with Asperger’s have no delays in leraning and speech and often have intense interests and hobbies.

Signs of ASD change depending on age and developmental level and severity of their condition. Difficulties often change over time. Signs of ASD are often seen through three main areas:


Individuals with ASD have difficulty with verbal and non-verbal communication. Some individuals are unable to sustain social conversations and follow two way conversations.

Social interaction

Individuals with ASD do not fully understand the “social world”. They have trouble recognizing and understanding feelings and being empathic. They often spend time alone and may appear cold towards others.

Behaviours and interests

Individuals with ASD dislike change and tend to stick to a routine. They often have unusual interests. They are more sensitive to environmental stimuli such as smells and textures and tastes. Children with ASD may have repetitive movements

Neurofeedback is a brain-computer interface-based training method that uses quick and consistent sensory feedback signals of electrical activity in the brain. It is a non-invasive method of brain stimulation and medication-free clinical tool for improving several dysfunctional patterns in the brain which lead to symptoms of ADHD, anxiety, somatised anxiety, stress, focus issues and sleep.

It is suitable for children above the age of 6, young people and adults.

Neurofeedback Treatment with CBT

Neurofeedback treatment is based on understanding the complex but close relationship between the mind and the brain. Our minds are made of subjective feelings, thoughts, actions and intentions. These subjective experiences are driven by distinctive objective neural activation patterns in our brain. Whilst CBT and other therapies focus on feelings, thoughts and actions/behaviours, neurofeedback enhances treatment by modifying dysfunctional brain patterns in a direct and non-chemical way.

For instance, when there is a disruption in our brain’s neural activation patterns, it results in a wide range of issues such as emotional regulation, low mood, anxiety, memory, attention and sleep. Neurofeedback and CBT together address neural activity as well as mood, emotional and cognitive symptoms.

How does it work?

During a neurofeedback treatment session, electrodes will be placed on the scalp, eye and ear region to measure brain activity. The patient will participate in a simple computer game which may feel like a passive leisurely process but engages the brain in a very active process as it processes what happens on the screen in a moment-to-moment method. For instance, the brain is rewarded for showing certain brain activity created by auditory and visual feedback from the computer game. This is an unconscious process called “operant conditioning”.

Hence over multiple sessions guided by real-time sensory feedback, the brain is forced to learn induced mental states leading to “rewiring” or reorganization of the brain areas and neural networks. This alongside CBT provides a comprehensive treatment of mind training and brain training to improve symptomatic distress of patients.

QEEG (Quantitative Electroencephalogram or Brain Mapping) is a technique which focuses on identifying neuro markers and brain activity phenotypes to ascertain the brain functioning of individuals including various psychiatric concerns.

Once a map of an individual’s brain is created, it is used to adapt therapy, treatment and medication to achieve more optimal results. This process is called “personalized medicine” and is the way forward in psychiatric and psychological treatment.

QEEG also informs which protocols are best suited for non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as Neurofeedback.

How does QEEG work?

Electrodes are placed across the scalp and head, eyes region to record and measure neural activity. A report is generated based on the readings to identify unique brain patterns and vulnerabilities.

QEEG alongside psychometric tests or psychological assessment provides a comprehensive assessment of individuals’ personality and brain profiles as well as in-depth mental health assessments.

Get in touch with Nos Curare today to see how we can help you.

Get in touch with Nos Curare today to see how we can help you.